Sunday, August 19, 2007

tomoyuki yamashita


Tomoyuki Yamashita 山下 奉文

He was a general of the Japanese imperial army during the World War II era. He was well known for conquering the British colonies of Singapore and Malaya. Hence, earning the nickname ‘The tiger of Malaya’.

Biography:
Yamashita was born in AA small village on the Japanese island of Shikoku, on 8 November 1885,and also the son of a local doctor, Osugi Mura. He attended the army war college between 1913 and 1916,after graduating from the cadet academy in 1905.Yamashita introduced an unsuccessful military reduction plan in the war ministry.Between the year 1919 and 1921,he held the captain rank, and was posted to Berlin and Bern as a military admistrative staff.Despite his impeccable abilities, Yamashita fell into disfavour as a result of his involvement with adverse factions during the 1920s and 1930s internal power struggles within the Japanese military.He clashed with Hideki tojo,a war minister,who is also a leader in the ‘control faction’.Hideki tojo was also a powerful rival to Yamashita’s ‘imperial way’group.He also laid a bad impression with the Showa emperor,for his appeal for leniency toward the rebel officers involved in the 1936 Febuary 26 incident.. Yamashita insisted that Japan should keep peaceful relations with the the United states and Great Britain,and also end the conflict with China. But he was ignored and consequently assigned to an unimportant post in the Kwantung army. From 1938 to 1940, he commanded the 4th Infantry Division and noticed some action in Northern China against chinese insurgents fighting the occupying Japanese armies. In December of 1940, Yamashita was sent on a clandestine military mission to Germany and Italy.where he met Hitler and Mussolini.
Personal life :
Yamashita married the daughter of Japanese General Nagayama in 1916. They did not have any children.
He enjoyed fishing, music and despite countless of opportunities, decided not to learn how to drive an automobile, but preferred to ride instead.

Contribution to Malaya and singapore:
On november 6,1941, Yamashita was put in command of the 25th Army. On december 8, he launched an invasion of Malaya, from the bases in French Indochina. In the campaign, which include the fall of Singapore on February 15, 1942,Yamashita's 30,000 front-line soldiers seized 130,000 British, Indian and Australian troops, which was the largest surrender of British-led personnel in history.He was known as the ‘Tiger of Malaya’. The campaign and the consequent Japanese occupation of Singapore included war crimes committed against Allied personnel and civilians, such as the Sook Ching and Alexandra Hospital and Massacres .Yamashita’s culpability for these events resulted in a matter of contention, as some argued that he had failed to prevent them. though he personally had the officer who instigated the hospital massacre executed for that act and he also made apologies to the surviving patients.General Yamashita ,involved ib the World war II in singapore ,which was still under the british rule,set up his headquaters at the Sultan of Johor’s palace.From the five-storey high tower,Yamashita could see every vital key target in northern singapore.Yamashita was right that the British would not fire at the home of their old friend,Sultan Ibrahim.Yamashita gave precise and effective commands to his troops which led to the defeat of the British.Such as :Before the war,the Japanese had set up their intelligence services in malaya to get information on the british defence and readiness.they were well prepared and had planned on how to defeat and react to the British if trouble appears.The Japanese commander,Yamashita,was a skillful leader who could lead his troops effectively .on the other hand,the british commander,percival,was indecisive and not forceful.yamashita had many plans and plots up his sleeve which led to the defeat of the british.one of them was” My attack on sibgapore was a bluff,I had 30,000 men and was outnumbered 3 to 1.I knew that if I had to fight along for singapore,I would be beaten.That was why the surrender had to be done at once.I was very frightened that the British would come to know our numerical weakness and lack of supplies and force me into disastrous fighting” –Lieutenant –general yamashita.
Later years:Death
From October 29 to December 7, 1945, an American military commission tried General Yamashita for war crimes relating to the Manila Massacre and sentenced him to death. This case has become a antecendant regarding the command responsibility for war crimes and is known as the Yamashita Standard.

Following the Supreme Court decision, an appeal for clemency was made to President Truman. The President, however, refused to act and left the matter completely in the hands of the military. General MacArthur announced that he had confirmed the sentence of the Commission and on February 23, 1946, at Los Banos Prison Camp, 30 miles south of Manila, Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged. After climbing the steps leading to the gallows, he was asked if he had a final statement. To this Yamashita replied through a translator:

As I said in the Manila Supreme Court that I have done with my all capacity, so I don't ashame in front of the Gods for what I have done when I have died. But if you say to me `you do not have any ability to command the Japanese Army' I should say nothing for it, because it is my own nature. Now, our war criminal trial going on in Manila Supreme Court, so I wish to be justify under your kindness and right. I know that all your American and American military affairs always has tolerant and rightful judgment. When I have been investigated in Manila court I have had a good treatment, kindful attitude from your good natured officers who all the time protect me. I never forget for what they have done for me even if I had died. I don't blame my executioner. I'll pray the Gods bless them. Please send my thankful word to Col. Clarke and Lt. Col. Feldhaus, Lt. Col. Hendrix, Maj. Guy, Capt. Sandburg, Capt. Reel, at Manila court, and Col. Arnard. I thank you.


Yamashita was a dignified figure, with a prominent part of his uniform being a pair of black riding boots with spurs cast from gold. On the day he was sentenced to death, General Yamashita presented them to his American attorney, Major George F. Guy, as a gift.
His chief of staff in the Philippines, Akira Muto, was executed on December 1948 after having been found guilty of war crimes by the Tokyo tribunal.
name:Tomoyuki Yamashita( 山下 奉文)
age uptil death:63
sttus: married
Died in december 1948
Birth:8 november 1885

Done by wong Liyan.2E(32)Zubia aman(34),

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